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VHS FORMAT (VHS = IEC 774 / VHS-C = IEC 1077)

Introduced soon after Betamax, the Video Home System format has become the dominant consumer standard. For camcorders, the VHS-C concept was introduced, using a smaller cassette which can be used with an adaptor in a full-size machine. The Hi-Fi version buries a longer wavelength FM audio carrier under the short wavelength video in the depth of the tape coating to escape the limitations of longitudinal audio tracks at low tape speeds.

Signal system
Analogue, composite, 'Colour under'.
Geometry Helical
No. of rotating heads 2 *
Scanner diameter 62 mm
Rotation speed 25 rev/s
Tracks/revolution 2
Head-to-tape speed 4.85 m/s
Video track angle 5.96 degree
Track width 58.0 µm
Track pitch 58.0 µm
Azimuth ±6.0 degree
Tape Properties
Coercivity 650 Oe
Type Cobalt modified oxide or chromium dioxide
Width 12.65 mm
Thickness (total) 21.0 (max) µm
Tape Consumption
Linear 23.39 mm/s
Areal 0.018 m²/min
Shelf volume 120 (E-240) cm³/h
Electrical Characteristics
Sync tip carrier frequ. 3.8 MHz
Peak white 4.8 MHz
Chroma s/c 0.627 ** MHz
Shortest wavelength 0.78 µm

* More heads are sometimes provided for improved slow-motion etc.
** Strictly fsc = (44fn + 1,953) Hz.

IEC 774
VHS-C IEC 1077

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